The report is a summary of any written or oral presentation. The referrer explains the presentation of someone else – sometimes to his own. The content and form of the report is narrower and broader than the summary. Examples include radio and television news.
Although the report requires a narrative, it is not as informal as the narrative. The referrer extracts the main points, insights, results and their justification from the material being discussed. In this way, the body of the original work will appear in the report, and the main issues stand out from the side.
The referrer provides the recipient with the original text in a new format, abbreviated. The referent must not inflate his own opinions or conclusions into the report. The report only presents facts. Subjective declarations – “the author claims”, “the author thinks”, “the author says quite rightly”, – do not fit in the report. Neutral sayings are, for example, “writer states” and “writer says”.
Certain identification marks must be attached to the report. The heading must indicate that it is a report. In addition, the title, top of the text, must include the name of the rapporteur, the name of the original text, the name of the author of the original text, the publication of the article and its number or date. In the case of a presentation, mention must be made of the title of the presentation, the keeper, the holding time and the place of holding.
The purpose of the report is to save the time of the reader or listener. Thus, the report must be constructed as linguistically and technically as easy to adopt. The phrase must be avoided, but the readability must not be undermined by excessive tightness. Unobtrusive abstraction must be avoided, as are circular generalizations. You should not write in the message style or use abbreviations more than in general. Instead, illustrative steps and groupings can be used, as well as intermediate headers.
The author of the report must use complete sentences, and he must formulate the sentences himself, as the abundant use of quotations is not desirable as well as the direct translations of foreign language sentences. In order for the source text not to be overly influenced by the speaker’s own words and not to attract full sentences, it is advisable to work as you write your reference: Read the source text carefully. Write a report in your own words, remembering your reading. Then check the details in the initial text and format them to fit your own text. Finally, fix the grammar.
- The report must not be a mere list. If necessary, you may justify the use of bullets or numbering, but the report should not be based on this.
- The task of the bulletin is to inform about something in its name. In most cases, newsletters are sent to the media and are intended to provide journalists with the basis for producing news texts.
Of course, the bulletins may have a different purpose. On the page “Backgrounds and Objectives of the Text” is an example of a bulletin prepared for the residents of the farmhouse management company.
The newsletter should be short and should be as clear as possible. The newsletter should follow the structural formula of the news, ie the main thing, then the additional information and finally the background information. There may be intermediate headings in the bulletin that make it easier to read the text and clarify it.
It is also a good idea to make the bulletin clear. The notice shall contain the name of the type of text (DOCUMENT) and the date of its creation. It is also useful for reporters to know where or where to get more information. The media newsletter must also indicate the date on which the information may be made public.
A summary is a text that is compressed by another text. The summary is intended to convey the content of a broader text in a short, fast-paced form, and only contains the main content of the source text. The abstract is usually written by the same person who has written the text to be compressed, but the abstract can be written by someone else.
There are two types of summaries in scientific contexts: summaries of scientific articles published in domestic or international journals and summaries of theses, eg bachelor’s and master’s theses.
Summaries of scientific articles and theses differ in that the summaries related to scientific articles are intended for experts and in short form contain the main methods and results of the article. In addition, summaries of scientific articles may be published in a language other than the source article; this is to encourage the content of the text to be communicated to the largest possible audience.
The thesis summaries are again written according to the instructions given by the institution where the thesis is produced. In Finland, for example, each university has its own summary guidelines. The summary of the thesis is a summary on one paper, written in line 1 and usually containing no more than 250 words, and its main contents are as follows: subject and purpose of the thesis, research material, research method, main results and conclusions. So the abstract is like a thesis in miniature.
At the beginning of the summary, the bibliographic data of the thesis must be marked in accordance with the instructions given, and at the end of the thesis a few words referring to the content of the thesis are mentioned. There may be a few pieces separated by a blank line in the straight line. Possible structural solutions include: Chapter 1: Theme and Purpose of Work, Chapter 2: Material and Method, Chapter 3: Key Results and Chapter 4: Conclusions. The example summary follows this structure except that the results and conclusions are presented in the same third paragraph.